Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Tax Disclosure [Text Block]
Income Taxes
In accordance with ASC 740-270,
Income Taxes – Interim Reporting
, the Company is required at the end of each interim period to determine the best estimate of its annual effective tax rate and apply that rate to year-to-date ordinary income or loss. The resulting tax expense (or benefit) is adjusted for the tax effect of specific events, if any, required to be discretely recognized in the interim period as they occur.
For the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company recorded a tax benefit of $0.026 million and immaterial tax expense, respectively. 
For the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company recorded a tax expense of $0.488 million and immaterial tax expense, respectively. The gain on sale of assets to Celularity in the period ended June 30, 2018 resulted in current state tax expense, primarily due to limitations on the use of net operating loss carryforwards in certain state jurisdictions. The Company has not recorded net deferred tax assets as of September 30, 2018 or December 31, 2017 because it maintained a full valuation allowance against all material deferred tax assets, and management has determined that it is more likely than not that the Company will be unable to realize those future benefits. The Company’s effective tax rate differs from the statutory rates of 21% and 34% as of September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, due to losses for which no future benefit is expected. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company had no uncertain tax positions recorded in its consolidated balance sheets.
The United States enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Act”) on December 22, 2017, most provisions of which took effect in years beginning after December 31, 2017. The Act made substantial changes to U.S. taxation of corporations, including a reduction in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 34% to 21% and changes to limitations on the deductibility of executive compensation. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in law or tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
After the enactment of the Act, the SEC issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB 118”) to address the application of U.S. GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Act. In our financial statements for the period ended December 31, 2017, we calculated an estimate of the impact of the Act related to the remeasurement of our net U.S. deferred tax asset due to the change in U.S. federal corporate income tax rate. The provisional amount recorded was deferred tax expense of $14.6 million, but which was fully and equally offset by a deferred tax benefit related to a corresponding reduction in our valuation allowance.  In addition, due to changes in executive compensation rules pursuant to the Act, the Company determined that approximately $1.3 million
of deferred tax asset for stock compensation may not be realizable. The Company had previously recorded a valuation allowance against the deferred tax asset so this adjustment had no impact on the financial statements for the period ended December 31, 2017. During the quarter ended September 30, 2018, the Company finalized its U.S. federal 2017 income tax return, which resulted in an immaterial change in the net deferred tax asset, before valuation allowance, as of the enactment date. The Company has not adjusted the provisional estimates recorded during period ended December 31, 2017 under SAB 118 and will complete the accounting for the income tax effects of the Act prior to the end of the one-year measurement period.